3-Dimensional Structures

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3-Dimensional structures

Biological molecules Elements
Inorganic compounds Orbitals
Organic molecules Pharmaceuticals, drugs and poisons

Biological molecules

Amino acids Nucleic acids, purines and pyridines
Carbohydrate polymers Proteins
Lipids Signalling molecules
Miscellaneous molecules Sugars

Amino acids

alanine leucine
arginine lysine
asparagine methionine
aspartic acid phenylalanine
cysteine proline
glutamic acid serine
glutamine threonine
glycine tryptophan
histidine tyrosine
isoleucine valine

Carbohydrate polymers

starch cellulose


alpha-carotene palmitic acid
beta-carotene cis 11-retinal
cholesterol stearic acid
oleic acid triglyceride

Miscellaneous molecules

capsaicin vitamin A (11 e-retinal)
chlorophyll vitamin B1 (thiamin)
cholic acid vitamin B3 (niacin)
glycerol (propan-1,2,3 triol) vitamin B12
haem vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
pyrrole vitamin E (alpha-tocotherol)
urea vitamin L1 (anthranilic acid)

Nucleic acids, purines and pyridines

adenosine DNA
cytosine tRNA
guanosine monophosphate
thymosine monophosphate


insulin myoglobin
collagen pepsin
Beta pleated sheet sample acetylcholine esterase
catalase alpha helix sample

Signalling molecules

adrenalin insulin
arachidonic acid serotonin
ergosterol testosterone


alpha-D-glucose maltose
beta-D-glucose sucrose


arsenic iodine
carbon (buckminsterfullerene) lithium
carbon (buckytube) oxygen (ozone)
carbon (diamond 1) phosphorus
carbon (diamond 2) sodium
carbon (graphite) sulphur
copper 1 zinc 1
copper 2 zinc 2

Inorganic compounds

aluminium trichloride (AlCl3) phosphorus oxide trifluoride (POF3)
ammonia (NH3) phosphorus pentachloride (PCl5)
ammonium ion (NH4+) phosphorus tribromide (PBr3)
arsine (AsH3) phosphorus trichloride (PCl3)
beryllium chloride (BeCl2) phosphorus trifluoride (PF3)
boron trichloride (BCl3) phosphorus triiodide (PI3)
boron trifluoride (BF3) silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4)
boron trifluoride ammonia complex (BF3NH3) sodium chloride (NaCl)
bromine pentafluoride (BrF5) sulphate ion (SO42-)
calcium fluoride (CaF2) sulphur difluoride (SF2)
carbon dioxide (CO2) sulphur dioxide (SO2)
carbonate ion (CO32-) sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
carbonic acid (H2CO3) sulphur oxide tetrafluoride (SOF4)
chlorine oxide (Cl2O) sulphur tetrafluoride (SF4)
chlorine trifluoride (ClF3) sulphur trioxide (SO3)
hydrogen cyanide (HCN) tetrachloroiodide ion (ICl4-)
hydrogen sulphide (H2S) thiosulphate ion (S2O32-)
hydronium ion (H3O+) tin (II) chloride (SnCl2)
iodate (VII) ion (IO4-) triiodide ion (I3-)
nitrogen sulfide trifluoride (NSF3) water (H2O), ice
oxygen difluoride (OF2) water (H2O), liquid
phosgene (COCl2) water (H2O),1 molecule
phosphate ion (PO43-) xenon difluoride (XeF2)
phosphine (PH3) xenon hexafluoride (XeF6)
phosphorus dichloride trifluoride (PCl2F3) xenon tetrafluoride (XeF4)
phosphorus oxide trichloride (POCl3) xenon trioxide difluoride (XeO3F2)
hydrated copper sulphate


Atomic orbitals
Hybrid atomic orbitals
Molecular orbitals

Atomic orbitals

3dyx, 3dyz, 3dxz, 3d(x2-y2)
4f5xz2-xr2, 4fy3-3yx2, 4f5yz2-yr2, 4fx3-3xy2)
4fzx2-xy2, 4fxyz

Hybrid atomic orbitals

an sp orbital
two sp orbitals
an sp2 orbital
three sp2 orbitals
an sp3 orbital
four sp3 orbitals

Molecular orbitals

sigma (s + s)
sigma (p + p)
pi (p + p)

Organic molecules


methane ethane
propane butane (anti conformation)
butane (gauche conformation) butane (eclipsed conformation)
cyclobutane 2-methylbutane
methylpropane pentane
decane 2,2,dimethylpropane
poly(propene) poly(ethene)

Alkenes and alkynes

ethene propene
1-butene 2-methyl propene
cis but-2-ene trans but-2-ene
trans cyclooctene ethyne


benzene poly(phenylethene) (polystyrene)


methanol ethanol
propan-1-ol propan-2-ol

Carboxylic acids and carboxylate ions

ethanoic acid (acetic acid) ethanoate ion
methanoic acid (formic acid) propanoic acid
tartaric acid


ethyl ethanoate ethyl propanoate

Carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones)

methanal (formaldehyde) ethanal
propanone (acetone) benzaldehyde

Halogenoalkanes and Halogenoalkenes

dichloromethane 1,2-dichloroethane
bromochlorofluoroethane (enantiomer 1) bromochlorofluoroethane (enantiomer 2)
1,1-difluoroethene poly(tetrafluoroethene), (PTFE, teflon)
poly (chloroethene / poly (vinylchloride) / PVC triiodomethane (iodoform)


ethanamine 1,4 diaminobutane


trinitroglycerine 2,4,6 trinitromethylbenzene (TNT)
nylon 6,6 DDT

Pharmaceuticals, drugs and poisons

acetylsalicylic acid mustard gas
aspartame nicotine
AZT pregnenolone
caffeine Prozac
cocaine quinine
cortisol saccharin
digitoxygenin salicylate
dopamine sulphanilamide
heroin Warfarin

Notting Hill & Ealing High School (GDST) Updated 11/11